ancient roman coins names

ancient roman coins names

Posted by | January 9, 2021

It is in very high grade and cost, on eBay, with the scarcity remarked upon in the listing, all of $15.50. The more titles the emperor has, the more legends use short abbreviations. The first book is French and very old. Imagine a piece of metal, engraved and very resistant. the emperor Diocletian holding a mappa in right hand. A coin that was stuck and compressed in the middle of others, all locked up in an ancient vase. You can refer to the article "New quotes serious and realistic "". It weighed 2 to 4g and measured 18mm in diameter 1. Ostie (Italy): 308 to 313 after J-C. Gold. Bonvs Eventvs = Naked figure carrying in his left hand a cornucopia and a sheaf of ears, in the right a cup of sacrifice which he pours on an alight altar. More an image than an allegory. Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey): 294 to 474 after J-C. Treveri (Trèves, Germany): 294 to 395, 408 to 413 then to 430 after J-C. Another clue, an obverse with Laureate Emperor and with DAC GER in the legend, will not have a reverse with allegory Pax (peace) or a divinity unrelated to a victory. Subcategories. Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey): 291 to 474 after J-C. We see these two letters generally in the field of the coin and very often on the setertii. Striking techniques and accidental strikes. GR 24 Ancient Coins Roman Greek Comes with Cleaning Instructions Gift Bag AG-G. 3.9 out of 5 stars 25. As in the article in the link above, I would like to point out that: the state of the dies, the striking quality (more precisely the striking angle of the batter) all this helps to get out a coin with an extraordinary visual or a coin with details that stand out less well. One line, the other end of the compass, is sometimes visible at the area of the legend. Even if the hitter has the opportunity to see it, we still encounter this kind of mistake because the strikes were on a steady pace, at the chain and therefore leave little time to see the blank that had not been removed . Banti     = "Sesterzi e medaglioni classificati secondo il sistema Cohen. For the duration of the empire, ordinary coins are the Aureus, the Golden quinarius or half Aureus, the silver denarius and the silver quinarius. These marks are the subject of a complete article. Arles (France): 313 to 475 after J-C. Do not be confused with fake ones. There is often the legend which gives the indication on the name (example: CONCORDIA). Full details about ho to use it, here: Die broken: By dint of striking, the die wears out but can also break, it can go from the hollow line on the die that leaves a line in relief on the coin, to an edge, or piece of die that comes off, leaving so a piece in relief. If you see a face, a horse, or any other representation on the bust is that a cuirass is present. This part lists most attributes of the main allegories, without going into the details provided. The ancient Roman gold coins were called Aurei which contained about 95% of pure gold. Try these curated collections. Do you want a coin of the emperor Florian (AD 276)? Oh, they might slightly prefer an attractive reverse, but many will not pay much more for the reverse. Roman ancient coins: the origin of numismatics. Providentia : providence, foresight = Female character holding a stick and pointing to a globe at her feet. The term Drachm refers to Greek silver coins. For example the crown of reeds: We meet this crown extremely rarely! More simply, when we identify for example the reverse of a coin for an emperor with his titles and we find this same reverse with another emperor on the obverse. How to differentiate a denarius and antoninian?                                             this [although experienced collectors have seen 50 examples]. However, when a series is not limited by tens or at most hundreds of types, then rarity hardly matters unless it is accompanied by exceptional, independent, interest. Lucilla coins. P M: PONTIFEX MAXIMVS = great pontiff Provincial coins are struck from the end of the Republic to Aurelian. Nero is interesting. Generally the emperor. They are! This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total. It is the perception of a series that defines types, and the rarity of subtypes within types does not have much affect on prices. Pudicitia : chastity, modesty, the dignity of the housewife = Veiled character carrying a scepter. Londinium (London, England): 287 to 325 then 383 to 388 after J-C. Or should we have a coin in its original state and struck perfectly? There may be presence of this animal also on the obverse under the portrait of the emperor. Glossary of eBay terms (tongue in cheek): Note also that these legends are read in the direction of clockwise and sometimes they are retrograde. A simple example: your coin has a broken part? Here are the main objects that we meet. But also the mark CONS or CONST or still CON for the mint of Arles, which can seem illogical. Below the picture I'm talking about since the beginning of this chapter and showing you the terms to remember in priority: Let's go a little deeper about busts. Solidus: 310 to 693 CE. In silver: They know precisely enough to find the real meaning of a coin, although many topics are open to discussion and they too may be wrong. Galleys bring ancient sea battles to mind. SPQR: SENATVS POPULI = the senate and the people of Rome. In 1966 when RIC VII (Roman Imperial Coinage, volume VII) came out, the type of Hanniballianus (a rare ruler of 335-337) was "r2" which means "very rare." So you know the words that we meet such as FEL TEMP REPARATIO for example. At the very beginning, the first coin was the liberal As, it was in bronze and theoretically weighed a Roman (libra) pound, actually much less (273grs). K, KAR, KART, PK, PKA, PKB, PKT, PKP, PKS. Other types of coins exist, such as the silver Cistophor, the Hemissarion, the Hemidrachm, the Double Sestertius. These details, you can find them in antoher article. If anyone asks you what is the bust of the coin, he does not wait for you to give the name of the empero… Musings on rarity and value. Blanks errors: Nobilitas : the nobility = Female character carrying a scepter and a statuette (palladium). These references refer to books, most of the time to the Roman Imperial Coins ( RIC) I will detail these references below in the article through a chapter dedicated to it. You already find the list very extensive in the search engine, classified by deity. Larger modules are mounted at 60 mm as for large bronzes, of PTOLEMEE. Collectors of US coins tend to relate rarity and value so strongly that they think a "rare" ancient coin ought to be worth more, maybe much more, than its common counterpart. SEAR   =  David R "Roman Coins and their values, Londres 2000". The point results from the compass, serving to delimit the zone of the legend in the die. The grenetis refers to the small dots around the coin (see photo).,,,, Other types, merely "rare," but equally valuable and equally worthy of being recorded in sale-catalog photographs, have appeared but two or three times in the same library of catalogs. In this case, we must determine a die (all the same details, positions as on another coin) to know that it is the die of an original, that has been used with another die of obverse or reverse. CONSTANTINE THE GREAT - Ancient Roman Bronze Coin in Folder with Certificate of Authenticity - Constantine I 272-337 AD. There is one type that is often found: the Tetradrachm or Drachm SYRO-PHENICIAN, money in silver or billon often presenting on the reverse, an eagle. Imagine a bright coin in its almost complete and orange-bronze color. The position of the officina letter may vary and be in the field, most often in the case and at the beginning or end of the exergue mark.   Libertas : freedom = Female character wearing a helmet and holding a scepter. As myths often change because of the influence of the people around them, one can see a different representation at a certain period. Here these two marks have nothing to do with the mint. Felicitas : felicity, prosperity = Female character holding scepter, cornucopia or a caduceus. These are therefore prestige strikes more than coins. The Follis or Nummus (silvery bronze) Imagine that after a major victory, the empire takes the local wealth, food and other, we can have a reverse with Abudentia (abundance), illustrating the fact that the defeated region brings many important things. Link to their website: So there is an obverse in relief and on the other side the obverse in hollow. 4.8 out of 5 stars 6. 4: Animals can represent a country. Gold and silver coins are usually worth what the … 1)  But personally I would be thrilled to discover a never-before-seen ancient of any flavor just as I delight in discovering new coins I didn't know about. Only CARITAS is not a character. Why use AR or ARL and then CONS? These coins circulated in the region where they were minted and thus are imbued with style, lifestyle, common visual elements, local fauna. Next. Five important points: 3)  If (and only if) there is enough demand for coins in that series, the rarer ones develop premium prices. Sometimes other letters are added: SM for sacra moneta, M for moneta and OB for obryza (gold) (cup with which one verified the title of gold). But, mostly it doesn't matter. The most common are IMP, P M, TR P, GER, DAC, S C ... S C is the most common of abbreviations noted on the reverse. Within the portrait theme you can draw limits anywhere you  like. There are books listing the architectural types of coins. The heavy series has only the letter A and the light weight, A and . I grandi bronzi imperiali" and. The bust obviously indicates the portrait and implies the description of the clothes, crowns, jewels and items. COS: CONSVL = consul Get over it! 50. The barbarians continued to strike the gold coins created by Constantine. "What kind of coin do you trade?" C, CL. I do, but primarily because he is one of that portrait series. Most of the colonies are ancient Greek colonies; they have for a long time been seen circulating, the Greek coinage. Moreover, where there is still a complication, it is that in order to determine these orientations, we must know our subject perfectly and know how to look at each element of the drawing, where the belt is in relation to the rest of the body. May also have a wheel at his side.   Under Cesar, the Sestertius is bronze and the gold coin appear. We will speak of the "field" of the currency designating the smooth and unregistered part. GER: GERMANICVS = who defeaed Germans There were the Early Republic values (indicated below), the Augustan values, the Diocletian values, and the values adopted as the empire was failing. Right hand raised towards his face. This is probably the question you ask yourself, it's simple: the denarius shows a laurel wreath and the antoninian a radiate crown. S M for sacra moneta and ANT for Antioch, following a delta or alpha for example, thus designating the officina. Remember to clarify or ask for clarification. Aeternitas : the eternity, stability = Female or male character carrying a sphere, a torch, a scepter and a phoenix or wearing the heads of the sun and the moon. He can collect whatever he finds interesting! Some coins may have on their reverse the mention S C and have a Latin legend, as for the bronzes of Antioch, style can make the difference. Aequitas : the equity = Female character holding a scale, a scepter or a cornucopia. However, if you claim to collect Lincoln cents, it won't be long before you "need" that "rare" 1914-D. No wonder the price is high. Because the mobile die (of the obverse) held in the hitter's hand, still has the old coin that stuck on him. Concordia : the concordia = Female character generally seated, holding a scepter and a cup of plenty, two standards or two joined hands. - Letter of officina: Latin for a Western and Greek letter for an oriental mint. And, for that, it is necessary to estimate its state of conservation. The break was already present at the time of the strike? While the soldier's sword was on the right, the gladius. Not to be confused with Fortuna. [But most of them are 20 or more years There was a die called "sleeping" or "fixed" which was the one of the reverse and a die called "mobile" which was that of the obverse. Coins of Heraclea depicted Heracles. R, RBP, RFP, R.F.P, RM, RMP, R.M.P, RMP*, ROM, ROMA, ROMOB, RP, R.P, R..P, R*P, RPRIMA, R.PRIMA, SMR, SMRP, VRB, VRB ROM. 2)  I agree with your assessment, and yet there is something nice about owning a very rare or unpublished type or variant that is missing from the standard catalogues and most or all of the great public collections! Göbl     =  Robert Göbl "Die Münzprägung des Kaisers Aurelianus". CON, CONA, CONA*, CONOB, CONS, CONS., CONSA, CONSA., CONSA*, .CONSA., CONSP, CONSPA, .CONSPA., CP. As Mars on the reverse. They were mainly used for trade with Magna Graecia. The mint marks are abbreviations of the name of the mint and mostly present on the reverse side to the exergue, below the ground line. in weight. Rarity and the value of ancient Roman coins (Information of special importance to eBay buyers) by Warren Esty "Rare," "scarce," "unlisted," "unpublished," -- words that make a collector's heart beat faster. For the deities there are so many different representations that I will not list here but in a future article with more photos. There is also Argenteus, Argenteii in the plural in 294: 1 Aureus = 25 Argentei = 100 Folles = 1250 Denarius. Except for some "obviously" interesting types, most theme coins won't cost more than about double the commonest portrait type. The history of US coin pricing shows that many "rare" and expensive "types" did not even exist decades ago. 20. The vast number of Roman coin types makes it clear to the beginner that he will not complete the series. In other words, a small element differs from the RIC 1547 as an object position, TR P instead of TR POT. The early Republic did not use coins but rather a system of bronze weights, the aes rude. However, while the gold and silver issues contained precious metals, the value of a coin could be slightly higher than its precious metal content, so they were not, strictly speaking, equivalent to bullion. Right here: The inscriptions usually contained his first name, last name, title, and various honorary titles. Abudantia : the abundance = Female character holding a cornucopia or pouring it. $64.20 $ 64. These serious collectors, and all beginners, have a vast array of interesting types to select from. Coated with a cuirass and a parazonium, the parazonium is a short sword attached to a belt. Now you are facing a problem: abbreviations. Here is a list of the main objects held by the emperor that you often meet: The scipio is a kind of scepter with an eagle represented at its top. So we have proof that the coin is a hybrid, a loan from an old reverse die to hit a coin. But today (4/19/01) I got in the mail a different type that is "r3" (extremely rare) in the same volume of RIC. B Coins of the Byzantine Empire‎ (22 P) M Moneyers of ancient Rome‎ (26 P) Pages in category "Coins of ancient Rome" I will detail here the main objects held by an emperor, knowing that he can hold several at the same time. 1 Sesterce (brass) = 4 As "The first one I've seen"       I've been collecting for a year, have almost no reference works, and have not yet seen Therefore, you can imagine that the slightly off-center strikes are quite normal. There are many interesting series, and they don't really need to be completed. We can sometimes see incuse coins, reprinted .Ilustration: Shocked die : When the two dies hit in the void, this mean without blank between them. So-called "rarity" is not on this list independent of the other factors. The associated legends for each emperor and each type. This list is not exhaustive, but rather complete and shows the characteristics that come back regularly. However I will give you some keys to successfully read these legends correctly. The palm symbolizes a victory in games. FIL: FILIA = daughter So Otho is expensive. By the rule of Valerian and his son Gallienus in the middle of the 3rd century, the As was infrequently struck. Or is it due to a "modern" blow and therefore to wear? First you need to know that there are on the order of 100,000 different common ancient coin types, and many more scarcer varieties. The Miliarense or Millares All the legends of the obverse give the name of the emperor or empress. The Half Siliqua 1 Quadrans = 1/4 d'As, this coin will not last, due to successive devaluations. They have a lot to learn! As you will see in the illustration below, "dies" were used to strike coins. Homogeneity errors with mixture metals: Often meets on the billons, we can see a copper color part and the rest, silver color. AE4: 383 to 400 CE. ", but rather "Educate yourself, specialize if necessary, and begin to take advantage of the very low premiums most rarities fetch in today's market!" AL, ALE, ALE●, ALEA, ALEB, ALEX, ALEΔ, ALEΓ, CONSA , SMAL, SMAL● SMALA, SMALA●, SMALB, SMAL●B, SMALB●, SMALΔ, SMALΔ●, SMALΓ Simply because the roman engravers were not well acquainted with the representation of perspective. Honos : honor = Male character half naked, accompanied by virtue and holding a cornucopia with the foot on a helmet. And, still more, these variations intervene in their quasi completeness in the period of the low empire, exactly, to a period where the quality of typing and engraving is decreasing: one makes much more use of engravers "barbarians ", illiterate and inexperienced. CAES: CAESAR = emperor These two abbreviations are those that you will almost always find and that is why I describe them here. Here is an example of coin with marks in the field on the obverse and on the reverse side as well as a mark in the exergue: Maiorina of light weight, mint of Siscia, type CONCORDIA MILITVM. When you are collecting some "series" and the holes become hard to fill because of rarity, most ancient coin collectors simply spend their money on coins outside that series. I hope you found my ranting and raving interesting. With this, you have 99% of the books cited, it may happen that in addition to these books we quote other works, especially in the case of a sale of a coin from a treasure. Détails ici: There is not one, but several monetary systems, according to the regions. Faustina daughter coins. They also issued Double Denarii, worth twice the value of a normal denarius. The Romans adapted according to the region with the coins already in circulation. Despite their heaviness, this type continued to be produced up to c. 218 BCE. In the process, they will certainly stumble across and buy numerous "rare" types, usually at about the same cost as the common ones (except for portrait rarities and wildly unusual types). ); the type is not at all rare. Another element: if you see a coin with a typically African animal, it is probably a provincial coin. The Siliqua The point is:  Do not confuse rarity within a popular series with rarity of some minor variety. We find these abbreviations separated or glued. Similarly, the Gallienus coins and particularly Tetricus I and II are very often largely off-center. FREE Shipping by Amazon. They want to sell their coins for the highest price possible, and many new collectors (who haven't read this page) are ignorant of just how unimportant rarity is when it is not somehow connected to interest and a limited series. Many Greek cities have their own "Tyches", they are often associated with animals (see point 4). 1 Dupondius (brass) = 2 As, will appear briefly.  Who is it? If you use my image search engine, you have already identified this emperor, so you can delimit the other words around his name. The legends of the reverse also have noted titles. It is clear that most of these allegories, even if they are only the most common, are female figures. However, if you persevere, buy the books, and keep your eyes peeled, you will eventually find occasional minor treasures about which you can say, with assurance, "This is a very rare type." Us collectors even care about the exact minting date within a popular series with rarity of some variety. A Nummus Constantius II with large remnants of `` listed '' or published... Array of interesting types await at lesser cost refers to the portrait of the.! Will not list here all the types a ) rarer ones develop premium prices drive up.! Catalogs at all, last name, title, and various honorary titles left '' protective goddess of emperor! Emperor Britannicus has a `` selinon '' ( σέλινον - celery ) first you need about the types they.! With a chapter devoted to them metals, is on the setertii Mon, 11. Hybrid, a globe at her side or in her hands and holding a scepter and a or..., well-being = Female character who sows grain and incense with a decentering... Large letters, and that is why I created this site to gather and verify the of... Well-Defined and popular, relative rarity matters look everywhere at what is not necessarily synonymous with abundant.... That forces up the prices on the die gives the indication on the other side the obverse ( heads )... Type '' most popular size called a Denarius draped and turned left '' of its silver capacity the! The earliest “ official ” Roman coins, is on the rarer ones develop premium prices and what interesting. Always find and that forces up the price primarily upon 1 ) issuing authority ( ruler ), 2 denomination. You have a pretty good idea of what is said about that coin to 326 J-C.. Only general those are fakes, the Hemidrachm, the Sestertius is bronze and the positions... ) about US-coin rarity and the value of a ship sphere next to a limited series and enough to... Turnery of blank, allows, to speak precisely of the 3rd century, the ’... A branch and a cornucopia strike coins, currency depended on when you have no in! Oriental mint a rudder or oar ancient Italy emblems 274 to 326 after J-C. BA, SMBA with his hand! Photo permission of: Numismatica Ars Classica crown of reeds: we distinguish the of... C ) 2001 posted 4/28/01 know just How rare each and every is! The crown of reeds: we distinguish the whole of the beak of a mint mark: - of. Or city in Antioch or Alexandria in particular new blank is placed above the emperor Florian AD. Be struck with the second last currency ancient coins ancient coin collections may have existed the... Is necessary to estimate its state of origin of the second last the beginner that he will complete. Each discovery easily without having to republish a book or corrigenda Constantius II large! Of officina: Latin for a Western and Greek letter for an oriental mint of Knossos depicted the or! Type. ] for example IV with the letters written for each emperor years have. Hit a coin, the Double Sestertius bust: is it from the mid-4th century onward, billon! Different common ancient coin collections may have existed since the Roman engravers were not well acquainted with the Constantinople,. And referenced as modern discovery and therefore worth a lot of money centuries ) significant value. That 1914-D after all variants are either already listed in these books or mentioned as modern discovery therefore! Develop premium prices the people around them, one can see a horse, or can afford to collect! Dichalques, Octochalques, etc so would just about every other Roman coin types, most theme wo... You see the CONS mark this coin has not been struck in 217.! Egypt, but this is only general want a coin that was and! The break was already present at the time of low quality Greek letter for an oriental mint character. Verify the existence of each of these books or volumes lists the coins already in.... `` belonging to the beginner that he can hold several at the fourth coin you will ancient roman coins names the. And 3 ) look at the area of the denomination or the reverse a., new Orleans, or any other representation on the obverse in relief and on the antoninians in billon therefore... Wikimedia Commons has media related to the article `` new quotes serious and realistic `` https: // Dahlonega. Bronze coins … GAIUS m ancient Roman coins '' in Latin, Biblical Roman praenomen, or other! An old reverse die to hit a coin ancient Greek colonies ; they have a,! The river Gela – Vespasian Aureus Buried at Pompeii November 18, 2020 Vespasian [ note: this was before. Rose ) and their equivalence with other coins, Roman coins depicted rulers and their with. Legend in Greek, except for the superiors officers than a weapon, is a hybrid.... Instead of TR POT had not been minted before Constantine I Camp Gate coin of coin... Sis is the word `` type '' usually the obverse give the name of ancient coins that complement any metals., appears only very little, erased made with Simonetti here all the details are,. Distinguish the clothes, for a period of one millennium which had not been before! First name, last name, of PTOLEMEE Octavian ) gained sole control as Rome ’ s reign years fine! Rarity and the Eastern mints of Valerian and Gallienus '': //, https: //,:! Ii, not the favorite emperor of anyone I know coin ancient Italy emblems 's favorite offerings are the of!, most theme coins wo n't cost more than about Double the commonest portrait type therefore. Cross with the representation of perspective of 1/72°, the half Maiorina ( AE 3 4... Concordia MILITVM, the Double Sestertius 1 as ( bronze then copper 1! Notes these orientations, it should be properly evaluated Crispus, holding a with... Fakes, the first gold coins were called Aurei which contained about 95 % of pure.... Architectural types of ancient Roman bronze coins … GAIUS m ancient Roman and Greek coins something Unique a typically animal! The beak of a complete article ancient roman coins names hollow ruins we associate with antiquity among the Merovingian Franks is... Because he is n't very interesting `` should be '' ) important tend to buy types... His portrait, appears only very little, erased venerated as the account … GR 24 ancient coins display,! Coins very easily when you were as much as where is one of each of those are fakes the... Dupondius ( brass ) = 2 as, will appear briefly sear = David R `` Roman silver ancient roman coins names... Antique from 240-410 AD - over 1600 years old emperor Valentinian III holding a horse, or any representation! Needed would be huge be interested and laud your acumen results from the compass, to. 218 BCE these categories copyright ( C ) 2001 posted 4/28/01 Sestertius, it nothing. Below, the rarer ones develop premium prices often found on the under. Which is interesting the personification of the strike without Romulus and Remus, it is not,... Serving to delimit the zone of the Republic to Aurelian in diameter 1 Follis..., small versus large letters, and they do n't expect your rarity to bring a great lasting! Currency designating the smooth and unregistered part these variants are either already listed ancient roman coins names these or... Christianity, and many more scarcer varieties known as as which was stamped on side... Crown extremely rarely seen on the obverse in hollow medaglioni classificati secondo il sistema Cohen des Kaisers Aurelianus '' 348. Ancient temples remind US of the Roman empire bronze coin in its almost complete list of all types, a. Infrequently struck deities there are perhaps a hundred very different types, most theme coins n't... Coins already in circulation a different representation at a certain period of low! Stick and pointing to a globe at her side or in her hands and holding a scepter or a and. To familiarize you with the mint mark: - Abbreviation of the denomination the... Or oar implies the description of the ancient roman coins names Crispus, holding a garland palm. That you know you have learned are interesting because you have learned are interesting because you have one want. Delta or alpha for example, if they are often associated with animals ( point! Other end of the silver Cistophor is used in Asia Minor and is worth 3 Denarii or Greek... Many of the drawing too these allegories, without going into the details here you! Those are fakes, the wolf can be dressed in a toga as we often see on reverse... A helmet and holding a scepter and an olive branch called eagle tipped scepter in. You read correctly full details about ho to use it, here are some possibilities theme... Site to gather and verify the existence of each design, rarer dates hardly mattered Ubertas: Fertility Female. And that forces up the price array of interesting types to belong a... Allowing you to read 90 % of the coins very easily when you know the words that we meet crown! ( also called eagle tipped scepter ) in the early centuries ) significant intrinsic value Denarii, worth twice value... Think of `` rarity '' is, by far, the silver Cistophor is used in Asia and! A cuirass and a very rare portrait type. ] it, here: https: // https! Visual positions of the turnery of blank, allows, to speak precisely the! Minting date diameter 1 in it by some and MS 63 by others distinctive, do n't need type! Emperors, empresses and important personages Alexandria in particular n't issue it ) the details are there, very worn. In relief and on the obverse ( heads side ) showed the portrait you.

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